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Topics - certforumz

What are 5 things you need to learn for web page development?

HTML: Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language used to create the structure and layout of web pages. It is the foundation upon which all web pages are built, and is essential for understanding how web pages are constructed.

CSS: Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a language used to control the presentation and layout of web pages. It is used to separate the presentation of a web page from its structure, making it easier to maintain and update.

JavaScript: JavaScript is a programming language that is used to add interactivity and dynamic functionality to web pages. It can be used to create things like rollover effects, form validation, and interactive maps.

Responsive Design: Responsive design is a technique used to make web pages adapt to different screen sizes and devices. It is essential for ensuring that web pages are accessible and usable on a wide variety of devices, including desktop computers, tablets, and smartphones.

Browser Compatibility: One of the challenges of web development is ensuring that web pages are compatible across different web browsers. It is important to understand the different browsers and the issues that may arise when developing web pages, and how to test and fix them. This can be done by using cross-browser testing tools and techniques.

The A+ certification, provided by CompTIA, is an industry-recognized certification that verifies the foundational knowledge and skills necessary for a career in IT. The A+ certification validates that the candidate has the knowledge and skills to troubleshoot, configure and manage devices such as personal computers, mobile devices, operating systems and printers.

The A+ Core 1 (1101) and A+ Core 2 (1102) exams are the two exams required to obtain the A+ certification. The A+ Core 1 exam focuses on the foundational knowledge and skills required to troubleshoot, configure, and manage mobile devices, networking, hardware, virtualization and cloud computing. The A+ Core 2 exam focuses on the knowledge and skills necessary to troubleshoot, configure, and manage operating systems, security, software troubleshooting, and operational procedures.

By providing practice tests for the A+ Core 1 and A+ Core 2 exams, is enabling individuals to better prepare for the certification exams and increase their chances of passing them. The practice tests offer a wide range of question types including multiple choice, true/false, exhibit, and simulator type questions on Windows 10 OS and Mobile devices, which can help the user to understand the different type of questions that can be asked in the real exam.

It also offers detailed explanations for each question which can help the user understand the reasoning behind the correct answer and the reasoning behind the wrong answers. The free trial version of the practice tests gives users the opportunity to evaluate the software before purchasing it, making it a valuable resource for anyone preparing for the A+ certification exams.

The website provides practice tests for the A+ Core 1 (1101) and A+ Core 2 (1102) certification exams. These practice tests have been updated to conform to the latest exam objectives, ensuring that users are studying the most up-to-date information. The practice tests include 300+ questions with answers and detailed explanations for each question.

The A+ Core 1 practice test covers the following topics: Mobile Devices (15%), Networking (20%), Hardware (25%), Virtualization and Cloud Computing (11%), and Hardware and Network Troubleshooting (29%).

The A+ Core 2 practice test covers the following topics: Operating Systems (31%), Security (25%), Software Troubleshooting (22%), and Operational Procedures (22%).

The question types include multiple choice, true/false, exhibit and simulator type questions on Windows 10 OS and Mobile devices etc. The website provides the option to download a free trial version of the practice tests, which allows users to evaluate the software before purchasing it.

Product links:
Comptia A+ Core 1 practice exams
Comptia A+ Core 2 practice exams
#4, a leading provider of practice assessments for IT certification exams, has recently updated its A+ Core 1 (220-1101) practice tests to align with the latest exam objectives. The practice tests feature over 300 questions with in-depth explanations for each one, covering a range of topics including Mobile Devices (15%), Networking (20%), Hardware (25%), Virtualization and Cloud Computing (11%), and Hardware and Network Troubleshooting (29%).

The A+ Core 1 exam simulator, along with the A+ Core 2 exam simulator, provides an actual exam environment with timed tests and difficulty levels that are similar to the actual exam. This allows candidates to experience what it will be like on the day of the real test, and better prepare themselves for it. The exam simulator also offers detailed, category-specific scoring to help identify and improve on weaker areas. This feature is useful as it allows candidates to focus on the areas where they need more improvement, and better prepare for the exam.

To ensure that candidates have the opportunity to try before they buy, is offering a free trial version of its A+ Core 1 and A+ Core 2 exam simulators. This allows candidates to evaluate the software and decide if it meets their needs before making a purchase.

It's important to note that is not affiliated with CompTIA or any other organization. The practice tests and exam simulators are developed in-house and are the copyright of

In summary,'s A+ Core 1 and A+ Core 2 practice tests and exam simulators provide the latest exam objectives, a real exam-like environment, detailed category-wise scoring, and a free trial version, making it a comprehensive solution for candidates preparing for A+ Core 1 and A+ Core 2 certification exams.
A+ Core 1 practice exam simulator
A+ Core 2 practice exam simulator

Here are some frequently asked questions about practice exams:

What are practice exams?
Practice exams are test simulations that are designed to mimic the format and content of a real certification exam. They can help you to become familiar with the types of questions you can expect to encounter on the actual test, and to identify areas where you may need additional study.

How are practice exams beneficial?
Practice exams can help you to identify your strengths and weaknesses, so you can focus your study efforts on the areas where you need the most improvement. They can also help you to become more comfortable with the format and timing of the actual test, which can reduce test anxiety.

Are practice exams always similar to the actual exam?
Not always, Some practice exams are more similar to the actual exam than others. It's important to look for practice exams that are developed by reputable sources and that are based on the latest exam objectives.

How many practice exams should I take?
It depends on your study schedule and how much time you have before the actual test. It's generally a good idea to take at least one practice exam before the actual test, so you can get a feel for the types of questions you can expect to encounter.

What should I do if I don't pass a practice exam?
If you don't pass a practice exam, it's important to identify the areas where you struggled and to focus your study efforts on those areas. You may also want to consider taking additional practice exams or seeking additional study resources.

Do practice exams guarantee that I will pass the actual exam?
Practice exams can be a helpful study tool, but they do not guarantee that you will pass the actual exam. It's important to use practice exams in conjunction with other study resources and to follow a comprehensive study plan.

It's always a good idea to check the terms and conditions of any practice exam you plan to use and give appropriate credit to the original source.
Windows 11 is a recently released operating system, so many newer motherboards should be compatible with it. Some examples of currently available motherboards that support Windows 11 include:

ASUS ROG Maximus XIII Extreme: This motherboard is based on the Intel Z590 chipset and supports the latest Intel Core processors. It has a robust power delivery system, active cooling for the VRM, and support for high-speed memory and storage.

MSI MPG Z590 Gaming Edge WiFi: This motherboard is based on the Intel Z590 chipset and supports the latest Intel Core processors. It has a high-performance power delivery system, active cooling for the VRM, and support for high-speed memory and storage.

Gigabyte AORUS X570 Master: This motherboard is based on the AMD X570 chipset and supports the latest Ryzen processors. It has a robust power delivery system, active cooling for the VRM, and support for high-speed memory and storage.

ASRock B450M-HDV: This motherboard is based on the AMD B450 chipset and supports the latest Ryzen processors. It has a solid power delivery system, support for high-speed memory, and a range of connectivity options.

Keep in mind that these are just a few examples, and many other motherboards from different manufacturers may also be compatible with Windows 11. It is always recommended to check with the motherboard manufacturer to confirm compatibility before purchasing.

The ASUS ROG Maximus XIII Extreme is a high-end motherboard and it offers a variety of ports and connectors. Here is a list of some of the ports that are available on this motherboard:

USB 3.2 Gen 2 ports (Type-A and Type-C): These ports support data transfer speeds of up to 10 Gbps.

USB 3.2 Gen 1 ports (Type-A): These ports support data transfer speeds of up to 5 Gbps.

Thunderbolt 3 ports (Type-C): These ports support data transfer speeds of up to 40 Gbps and can be used to connect external devices such as external hard drives and displays.

Ethernet ports: The motherboard has 2.5 Gb Ethernet and Intel WiFi 6 AX201 (802.11 ax)

Audio ports: The motherboard has a 3.5mm audio jack for headphones and a S/PDIF out port for digital audio.

DisplayPort and HDMI ports: These ports can be used to connect a monitor or other display device.

PCI-Express 4.0 slots: The motherboard has multiple PCI-Express 4.0 slots that can be used to add additional components such as graphics cards, sound cards, and more.

SATA and M.2 ports: These ports can be used to connect storage devices such as hard drives and solid-state drives.

It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and the motherboard may have other ports and connectors not listed here. It is always recommended to check the motherboard's manual or specifications to get a full list of the ports and connectors.

For Comptia A+practice tests check out the website.
Articles / CCNP certification - about
January 22, 2023, 05:27:06 AM
CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) certification is a valuable asset for professionals in the field of networking. This certification, offered by Cisco Systems, demonstrates a candidate's knowledge and skills in configuring, implementing, and troubleshooting Cisco network devices.

For professionals looking to take their networking career to the next level, the CCNP (Cisco Certified Network Professional) certification is the next step after CCNA. The CCNP certification validates a candidate's ability to plan, implement, verify and troubleshoot local and wide-area enterprise networks.

Advantages of obtaining a CCNP certification include:

Job Opportunities: CCNP certified professionals are in high demand in the job market. Employers prefer candidates with CCNP certification as it shows that they have the advanced skills and knowledge necessary to work with Cisco networking devices and support complex network solutions.

Career Advancement: Obtaining a CCNP certification opens up even more career opportunities and higher earning potential than CCNA. It is a widely recognized and respected certification in the networking industry, and can lead to roles such as network administrator, network engineer, and network architect.

Recognized by Employers: Cisco is a leading provider of networking solutions and their certifications are recognized and valued by employers worldwide. CCNP certification is a proof of the individual's ability to work with Cisco networking devices and support complex network solutions.

Hands-on Experience: The CCNP certification exam includes hands-on lab work, which provides candidates with practical experience in configuring and troubleshooting Cisco networking devices. This experience is beneficial for professionals in the field, as it allows them to apply their knowledge in real-world scenarios.

Stay Current with Industry Developments: CCNP certification requires recertification every three years. This ensures that certified professionals stay current with the latest industry developments and technologies.

In conclusion, obtaining a CCNP certification is a valuable asset for professionals in the field of networking, it builds upon the CCNA certification and validates the candidate's ability to plan, implement, verify and troubleshoot local and wide-area enterprise networks. It offers job opportunities, career advancement, and valuable hands-on experience. It is also highly valued by employers and helps professionals stay current with industry developments.

Check out: CCNA ENCOR practice tests
and CCNP ENARSI practice tests
GooglePlay, Adsense / GooglePlay for India Developers
January 20, 2023, 12:58:53 PM

Merchant Goods and Services Tax for sales in India
The Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a comprehensive, indirect tax applicable on manufacturing and the sale of goods and services in India.

Who pays GST
GST must be paid on Google Play Store apps and games sold to customers in India. Keep the following in mind:

App or game developers based in India must determine any tax obligation themselves and pay GST as applicable
Google collects and pays GST on sales of apps and games by developers located outside India
What India-based developers must do under GST law
If you're a developer with a merchant account address in India, you may be responsible for paying GST on the sale of apps and games by customers in India. To determine your GST obligations, we recommend you work with your tax advisor.

Get or find your GSTIN
We recommend you work with your tax advisor to determine your GST obligations.

Developers located in India that are required to get a GSTIN must provide it to Google under GST law.

To find or get your GSTIN, register or sign in to the Indian Government GST website and follow the instructions provided. If you need help, contact them. 

Provide or update your GSTIN
After you have your GSTIN, add it along with business contact details to your payments profile. We provide this information to Indian tax authorities under GST law (where required).

Here's how to enter your GSTIN, your business address, and state in your payments profile:

Sign in to the payments profile.
Click Settings.
Find your payments profile, then "India tax info".
Click Edit Edit .
Enter or update your India business address, state, and GSTIN.
Click Save.
Keep the following in mind:

You're responsible for the accuracy of the GSTIN and business address you provide to Google.
The price for apps and games in Google Play must include all taxes, including GST. Google will pass the total price to you after the transaction fee. Learn how to set up and change Play Store prices.
Plant Diseases / How to prepare Bordaux paste
January 14, 2023, 06:35:45 PM
Bordaux bordax paste is used for applying to wounded parts of a tree,

Explains how to prepare and use the compound.

Plant Diseases / Alum (Patika) for Lemon Plants
January 09, 2023, 02:48:50 AM
Alum (Patika in telugu) is good for lemon plants.

Alum is an inorganic compound composed of Water molecules, Aluminum, other Metal than Aluminium, and Sulphates. Alum is a double salt in the hydrated form. Alum exists in different forms: Potash Alum, Soda Alum, ammonium Alum, and chrome Alum. The general chemical formula for Alum is XAl(SO4)2·12H2O.

Aluminium Sulphate  Alum
Plant Diseases / Preparing Bordaux mixture
January 09, 2023, 02:33:49 AM
As general rule use 1% bordaux mixture for applying to roots and soil, and .5% bordaux mixture for leaves (tree top).,is%20applied%20on%20leaf%2Ffoliage.

Preparation of Bordeaux mixture

Translate to
About Bordeaux mixture
Preparation of 1 % Bordeaux Mixture
Materials required
Tests to determine pH of the prepared Bordeaux mixture
Advantages of Bordeaux mixture
Bordeaux paste
Bordeaux paint
About Bordeaux mixture
In the year 1761, Schulthez first used the copper sulphate for the seed treatment of Wheat diseases. Later on Prevost termed the copper as fungicide. In 1882, Millardet in France (Bordeaux University) accidentally observed the efficacy of the copper sulphate against the downy mildew of grapes caused by Plasmopara viticola. When copper sulphate was mixed with lime suspension, it effectively checked the disease incidence. The mixture of copper sulphate and lime was named as "Bouillie Bordelaise" (Bordeaux Mixture).

The original formula developed by Millardet contains 5 lbs of CuSO4 + 5lbs of lime + 50 gallons of water. The chemistry of Bordeaux mixture is complex and the suggested reaction is: CuSO 4 + Ca (OH) 2 = Cu(OH) 2 + CaSO 4

The ultimate mixture contains a gelatinous precipitate of copper hydroxide and calcium sulphate, which is usually sky blue in colour. Cupric hrdroxide is the active principle and is toxic to fungal spores.

Bordeaux mixture is generally accepted even in organic cultivation. It is easy to prepare and can be locally prepared by farmers themselves.

Preparation of 1 % Bordeaux Mixture
Materials required
Copper sulphate powder - one kg
Lime - 1 kg
Water - 100 litres
One kg of copper sulphate powder is dissolved in 50 litres of water. Similarly, 1 kg of lime is powdered and dissolved in another 50 litres of water. Then copper sulphate solution is slowly added to lime solution with constant stirring or alternatively, both the solutions may be poured simultaneously to a third contained and mixed well.

Preparation of 0.5% Bordeaux mixture is same as above but reducing the copper sulphate and lime half of the amount but keeping water same as 1% mixture preparation.

In general, 1% Bordeaux mixture is applied to hardy plant parts such as roots, stem and 0.5% of mixture is applied on leaf/foliage.

Tests to determine pH of the prepared Bordeaux mixture
The ratio of copper sulphate to lime solution determines the pH of the mixture. The mixture prepared in the above said ratio gives neutral or alkaline mixture. If the quality of the used materials is inferior, the mixture may become acidic. If the mixture is acidic, it contains free copper which is highly phytotoxic resulting in scorching of the plants. Therefore, it is highly essential to test the presence of free copper in the mixture before applied.

There are several methods to test the neutrality of the mixture, which are indicated below:

Field Test: Dip a well polished knife or a sickle in the mixture for few minutes. If reddish deposit appears on the knife/sickle, it indicates the acidic nature of the mixture.
Litmus paper test: The colour of blue litmus paper must not change when dipped in the mixture.
pH paper test : If the paper is dipped in the mixture, it should show neutral pH.
Chemical test : Add a few drops of the mixture into a test tube containing 5 ml of 10% potassium ferrocyanide. If red precipitate appears, it indicates the acidic nature of the mixture.
If the prepared mixture is in the acidic range, it can be brought to neutral or near alkaline condition by adding some more lime solution into the mixture.

The following precautions are needed during preparation and application of Bordeaux mixture.

The solution should be prepared in earthen or wooden or plastic vessels. Avoid using metal containers for the preparation, as it is corrosive to metallic vessels.
Always copper sulphate solution should be added to the lime solution, reverse the addition leads to precipitation of copper and resulted suspension is least toxic.
Bordeaux mixture should be prepared fresh every time before spraying. In case, the mixture has to be stored for a short time or a day, jaggery can be added at the rate of 100g/100 litres of the mixture.
Bordeaux mixture is sometimes phytotoxic to apples, peaches, new shoots/leaf.
Advantages of Bordeaux mixture
Very easy and can prepared by farmers themselves.
Can act as fungicide, bactericide and algaecide.
Applicable to tomato, potato, chilli, other vegetables, fruits (orange, lime, lemon), beetel vine, ginger, flower and ornamental plant diseases such as foot rot, stem rot, leaf spot, leaf blight, anthracnose, canker, damping off, black spot, downy mildew, late and early blight etc.
The chemicals required for this is copper sulphate and lime which is easily available in the market.
All the diseases controlled by copper based fungicides such as leaf spot, blight diseases can be controlled by this.
It is less toxic to human as compare to other commercial fungicides.
It cannot be keep for long periods (More than 2 days after preparation).
It cannot be applied during the cold and cloudy weather, as it causes phytotoxicity to plants.
It cannot be applied to apple, maize and some of the dwarf rice varieties.
Bordeaux paste
Bordeaux Paste consists of same constituents as that of Bordeaux mixture, but it is in the form of a paste as the quantity of water used is too little. It is nothing but 10 per cent Bordeaux mixture and is prepared by mixing 1 kg of copper sulphate and 1 kg of lime in 10 litres of water. The method of mixing solution is similar to that of Bordeaux mixture. It is a wound dresser and used to protect the wounded portions, cut ends of trees etc., against the infection by fungal pathogens.

Bordeaux paint
Bordeaux paint consists of 100g copper sulphate with 200g lime in 300ml water. It is a wound dresser and used to protect the wounded portions, cut ends of trees etc., against the infection by fungal pathogens.

Source : CAU Farm magazine Vol 6. No. 3
How to get OTP without getting charged for International roaming using airtel:
If you are looking to just receive SMS for any purpose say OTP for online transaction then this is the way to go :-
1. Convert your plan from postpaid to pre-paid
2. Turn Off Mobile data on roaming

Thats it. Now you will be able to connect to any provider that your telco has contracts with and be able to receive calls/sms and everything. Of course if you pick calls then you will be charged, same goes for calling/sending sms.
However, as long as your sim is in phone and you have non zero balance, you will not only be able to retain number but also keep getting sms (otps)

If you insist on keeping postpaid then you will have to activate international roaming. This would require you to make a deposit (getting it refunded will be herculean task in itself). This deposit is quite high generally in order of excess of INR 10k (Trust me, I tried to do this).

Also, you can only convert your number form postpaid to pre-paid from within India. They wont convert it to pre-paid for you from outside India (Again, trust me, I have tried to no gain).

Update: I have postpaid airtel pack, and it got activated for internation roaming automatically. Not sent any SMS, but receiving OTP. Not made any outgoing calls yet and not received any calls. Made mobile data OFF. It looks like now a days, even post paid connection will receive OTPs without any access charges of IR. but not sure yet!

International roaming is now free and pre-activated on both Airtel prepaid and postpaid numbers. In which you will get the free incoming SMS to receive the OTP and other SMS.
If you pickup phone or call some one, you will be charged. Similarly, if you send SMS or use mobile data, you will be charged roaming charges. So just keep mobile data off! and dont pick up phone calls if you want not to be charged by international roaming charges!

However, it appears that AT and T network charges if the  phone rings more than 29 seconds during roaming.
A+ Certification / Comptia A+ 220-1101 and 220-1102 Exams
November 18, 2022, 03:56:46 AM
Exam Details

Exam CodesCompTIA A+ 220-1101 (Core 1) and 220-1102 (Core 2) 
         Candidates must complete both 1101 and 1102 to earn certification. Exams cannot be combined across the series.
Launch DateApril 2022 
Exam DescriptionCompTIA A+ 220-1101 covers mobile devices, networking technology, hardware, virtualization and cloud computing. 
         CompTIA A+ 220-1102 covers operating systems, security, software and operational procedures.  
Number of QuestionsMaximum of 90 questions per exam 
Type of QuestionsMultiple choice questions (single and multiple response), drag and drops and performance-based 
Length of Test90 Minutes per exam 
Passing Score220-1101: 675 (on a scale of 900)
         220-1102: 700 (on a scale of 900)
Recommended Experience9 to 12 months hands-on experience in the lab or field 
LanguagesEnglish at launch. German, Japanese, Portuguese, Thai and Spanish 
RetirementTBD - Usually three years after launch 
Testing Provider Pearson VUE
Price$246 USD per exam (See all pricing)
check the attachment.
Products / updates CCNA exam sim
November 03, 2022, 05:39:39 AM, a leading practice tests and network simulators provider, recently updated Cisco Certified Network Associate practice exams. The update includes a few bug fixes and corrections among other things. The practice tests, offered by, includes 400+ highly relevant questions with answers and explanation for each question.

The advantages of practice tests are:

a. Ability to gauge one's preparedness to take real certification exam and strengthen weak areas
b. To familiarize oneself with actual exam environment (such as timed test, lab practice, relevant practice questions, etc.)
c. Since practice tests stimulate revision and studying, they encourage focused learning, which is likely to improve retention.
d. Practice tests can reduce test anxiety.
e. Usage of test environment: If the similar test software can be used in practice, this greatly reduces the chance of mistakes in navigating the exam screens, and candidates may focus on actual exam.
f. Taking a practice test doesn't just measure how much you know, it helps reinforce the learning and make it more likely that you can retrieve the same information later.
g. Many times, time becomes critical and many candidates leave a few questions at fag end. With proper practice tests, candidates can manage time so that all questions are answered in given time and reviewed.

Download trial version of the software by going to the product home page at,

Other practice tests available with include CCNP ENCOR and CCNP ENARSI. The practice exams consist of 300+ questions covering all aspects of exam objectives. Most questions carry detailed explanations. The trial downloads enable candidates to try the practice exams before actually buying them.

About CCNA Certification: CCNA certification is awarded by Cisco System, Inc. One can obtain CCNA certification by passing a single exam, 200-301.

About The website offers practice tests for several reputed vendor certifications, including Cisco Certified Network Associate, CompTIA A+, Network+, Microsoft MCSA, and others.

Disclaimer: is neither associated nor affiliated with Cisco Systems® or any other Company. All trademarks are duly recognized.
Products / Learning Management System
October 26, 2022, 11:46:42 AM
LMS, short for Learning and Management System is widely used by schools, colleges, and organisations for online learning, assessment, and management.
It is a software application that can be used to create, deliver, and manage online learning content and resources. LMS can also be used to track and report on the progress of learners.
It helps the institutions to manage and monitor the learning process of the students. The features and functionalities of an LMS may vary depending on the purpose it is being used for. For instance, an LMS meant for academic purposes will have different features than one used for employee training in an organisation. Similarly, a corporate LMS will have a different set of features than one used in a school. The system can run on an organisation's servers and it is used to manage the learning process of that organisation. It is responsible for the creation, administration, and delivery of online courses, quizzes, and tests. An LMS is also used to track the progress of learners and to store their records.
It is a software application that can be used to create, deliver, and manage online learning content and activities. It is also used to track and assess the progress of learners.
It stores the data of the learners and educators and helps them to communicate with each other. The most important function of the LMS is to provide a platform where the learners can access the learning materials and the educators can monitor the progress of the learners.
General Discussion / blink cameta change wifi network
September 29, 2022, 03:12:13 AM
1. open blink app in mobile
2. Opens settings in sync module
3. select change wifi
4. reset sync module (press and hold reset till red light appears)
5. Once blinking blue and steady green appears, you select the wifi network on the app,Change%20Wi%2DFi%20Network%22.